A water heater is the very alternative to a centralized hot water supply and a good opportunity to save money. A water heater is a kind of thermos that collects and heats the water inside.
The choice of a water heater for an apartment, cottage, house: basic criteria
When choosing a water heater, you should pay attention to such parameters:
- a heating element;
- electricity consumption and insulation;
- anticorrosion coating;
- tank shape, color;
- vertical or horizontal;
- control system;
- add. functions, installation and equipment.
The most popular volumes of water heaters are: 50l, 80l, 100l, 150l. On average, a water heater with a volume of 50-80 liters is enough for a family of three. A one-liter boiler is a good option for a family of 4 people or more. Due to the larger volume of the tank, the heating time of the water increases.
A heating element
The boiler heats the water with the help of a heating element. TEN is called a tubular heating element. They are divided into two types: wet and dry. The first type, that is, wet, during operation uses the principle of a boiler, namely it heats water by direct contact with it. The second is isolated from water thanks to a metal or ceramic sleeve. Recent water heaters are higher cost, but more practical.
Power Consumption and Thermal Insulation
Electricity consumption and thermal insulation are directly related. When choosing a boiler, pay attention to high-quality and modern thermal insulation. So it will maintain the water temperature longer, allowing you to save money on electricity. You can find out about the consumption of electricity by the boiler in its technical characteristics when buying.
Metal corrosion is a common occurrence in water heaters. Since water is constantly stored inside the boiler, its walls can be damaged. It directly depends on the material from which they are made. The highest quality material is considered to be titanium or stainless steel.
To prevent corrosion, many modern water heaters use anode protection. Since the welds begin to rust very first, they use an anode of aluminum or titanium. The tank itself acts as the cathode. Since the anode is a consumable, it must be changed after a couple of years of use. Together with the replacement, it is recommended to clean the heater and flush the tank.
The capacity of a water heater is greater, the greater its volume. But power consumption also depends on power. As an option, buy a boiler with two heating elements. This will allow you to insure yourself in case of breakdown of one of them. Also, if urgently needed, you can quickly heat the water, and when there is time, use only one heater.
Water tank shape and color
The forms of the boiler tanks are divided into two types:
Round or barrel-shaped boilers are quite simple to manufacture, because of which their cost is lower. At the same time, they take up much more space. A rectangular tank can be installed in the corner, which will save space in the bathroom. Also, rectangular models are often equipped with a thicker layer of thermal insulation. Before buying, consider the place where the water heater will be installed. Also, almost all water heaters come in white with different shades (silver or gray).
Vertical or horizontal
Any water heater is divided into the two above types, there are also universal models.
Each type has its own differences and the location of the heater. Usually it is attached to the side surface of the tank, or to the bottom plate.
It is highly recommended not to use vertical water heaters in a horizontal position and vice versa, as this reduces their productivity.
IMPORTANT! It is better to purchase a horizontal boiler if there is not enough space in the bathroom. You can fix it under the ceiling, which does not affect the free space.
At the same time, horizontal water heaters are more expensive, more difficult to install and require special maintenance.
Universal boilers are designed for both types of installation, this does not affect their performance.
There are two types of controls for controlling water heating:
- Mechanical control.
- Electronic control.
The first option is the cheapest and most practical. It is possible to regulate the heating of water with a lever located on the bottom of the boiler. You can find out the current temperature by looking at the window with an arrow, which is located in the center of the barrel. Management of downtime mastering and nothing breaks. However, the minus is that it is quite difficult to determine the exact temperature and change the degree of its heating.
Electronic control is located on the display with touch buttons. With this type of control, you can easily indicate the exact desired water temperature. The opportunity to turn on the economy mode or conduct diagnostics. The plus is accuracy up to 1 degree, and the minus the higher cost.
Additional functions, installation and equipment of the boiler
The owner of two tariff counters has such a function as a timer. With it, you can heat water at the exact time of day. Models with a timer will not cost much more.
Overheat protection will allow safe operation of the water heater. If the boiler will be used in the country, you will need a function such as frost protection.
The insulation layer should not be less than 35 mm. The best material is foamed polyurethane, but in case of savings, foam rubber is also suitable.
Care must be taken to install a sleeve that serves as isolation from currents.
IMPORTANT! Of the additional equipment will have to buy pipes, connectors and fasteners and, if possible, a pressure reducer. If the region is particularly dirty water, you must also purchase a filter.
Types of Water Heaters
There are different types of water heaters. Therefore, when choosing, it is necessary to decide which type is suitable for a particular room.
These water heaters are small and easy to install. They require a constant and high pressure of water in the tap. Consists of such a complete set:
- A heating element.
- Circuit breakers.
This type of water heater does not require a separately installed mixer. It consumes a lot of electricity.
It is used if necessary a large amount of water. Useful when a flow heater has problems with the load on the wiring.
The cost of such equipment is slightly higher than the previous one. It takes up a lot of space due to the large volume. Able to deliver water to several points at once, while maintaining the desired temperature.
The load on the network is minimal, it does not need a special connection.
They are rarely used, most often in private homes. Water is heated using a heat exchanger, which is connected to the heating system. It is possible to connect the boiler to a separate boiler.
In the summer season, when the heating turns off, the water is heated with the help of a heating element.
It uses a lot of electricity, which is why it is rarely used in apartment buildings.
A spiral is installed in the boiler of the storage tank of the boiler. It is in it from the heating system that the coolant enters.
Due to electric heating in the summer, electricity consumption increases.
There is a control panel that allows you to change the winter and summer modes.
Bulk water heaters are especially popular with summer residents. Well suited for those who do not have running water. The equipment is reminiscent of a wash basin, it consists of a water tank and a tap. The tank is equipped with a heating element.
There are various volumes, usually not more than 20 liters.
Features and specifications may vary by model and manufacturer. Such water heaters serve for a long time, they rarely break.
It consumes little power, plugs directly into an outlet.
Advantages and disadvantages
|Type of water heater||Benefits||disadvantages|
|Flowing||Compact, fast water heating. No volume limit.||It consumes a lot of power.|
|Cumulative||Huge volumes (up to 200 liters). Connection via a power outlet. Serves several points at once. Consumes a small amount of electricity.||Large size, time-consuming heating of water. Uses a lot of electricity. It is necessary to regularly change the anode.|
|Combined||Economical. Does not load the mains. Heats water quickly.||Buying extra. equipment and total cost. Installation must be agreed with the authorities.|
|Bulk||Installation is possible in any conditions. Small in size, heating fast.||Energy consumption, damage to the heating element by corrosion.|
Which water heater is better: gas or electric?
The gas ones work according to the principle: water enters the gas burner installed in the apparatus, equipped with copper heat exchangers, and instantly heats up
Install such a unit only in the presence of gas. If this is not possible, think about buying an autonomous cylinder in an apartment or house.
Unlike gas, electrical units operate autonomously. They can be switched on and off periodically, thereby saving energy. However, electricity consumption still remains high.
IMPORTANT! Electrical units have a limit on volume, unlike those that run on gas and heat water quickly. The volume depends on the size of the tank, which in turn affects the cost of the boiler.
Which boiler to choose: from stainless steel or enamel?
Coverage also plays an important role. It is also necessary to rely on this criterion when choosing a water heater.
The fact that enamel coatings quickly rust is just a myth. Experts say that such heaters can last longer than stainless units.
When choosing a quality unit, no problems should arise with it. A purchase is often accompanied by a warranty of five to eight years.
Enamel has its advantages: low cost and long operation.
Stainless steel coating
The word "stainless steel" gives you much more confidence before buying.
Not everyone knows that stainless steel contains chromium, particles of which begin to evaporate at high temperature. This starts with welds.
Due to the evaporation of particles of chromium, which is used as an anti-corrosion coating, some parts of the surface begin to rust, which is why the tank soon starts to leak.
Both of these boilers can become unusable, so the consumer should make the choice on his own, based on the room into which the unit is needed. They do not have any special differences. Protection is provided in both versions, but in different ways.